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kD & B22

Learn if your formulation is good to go or at risk


Weak, nonspecific interactions between protein molecules can have a large impact on colloidal stability and aggregation during the development of protein-based drugs. When you need to take a peek at the protein-protein interactions that may lead to aggregation, kD and B22 give rapid insight at how your molecules behave when they get crowded. kD, or the diffusion interaction parameter, is a holistic look at how proteins behave in a formulation when concentration increases and things start to get crowded. B22 is the second virial coefficient and looks at protein-protein interactions without a few of the thermodynamic and hydrodynamic factors included in kD.


Stunner’s one of-a-kind combination of protein quantification and light scattering makes measuring kD and B22 fast and easy. Instead of making assumptions, Stunner takes an accurate read on concentration for every data point and combines that with DLS data to show how your protein is interacting with itself in solution.


Uncle lets you figure out aggregation early with simultaneous, independent measurements of B22 and kD — but can also check out G22 if you’re working at super high concentrations. Learn on the spot if your protein-formulation combo is good to go or risky for aggregation.